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SEMSYSTEM — Model system Sun-Earth-Moon

The motion of the Earth and Moon around the Sun, explaining seasonal changes and the trajectory of the Sun and Moon across the celestial sphere



Earth

The Earth revolves around the Sun at a speed of 29.78 km / s, making a complete revolution in 365.25 solar days (sidereal year). The Earth also rotates around its own axis in the same direction as the movement along its orbit, making a complete revolution relative to the Sun in 24 hours (solar day).

Movement of the earth around the sun

The Earth's axis of rotation is inclined by 23° relative to the perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. During the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the Earth's axis does not change its position in space relative to the observer.
This causes seasonal changes on the surface of the planet. In December, the Northern Hemisphere is in the shade and cools down, while the Southern Hemisphere is maximally illuminated and warms up, in June, on the contrary, respectively, when it is Summer in the Northern Hemisphere, and Winter in the Southern Hemisphere. An additional consequence of the tilt of the earth's axis are the polar days and nights at the poles, half a year long.

Seasonal changes in the earth

The point of maximum immersion of the Northern Hemisphere in the shadow is called the Winter Solstice (December 21-22) is accompanied by the shortest day and longest night in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere. The point of maximum immersion of the Southern Hemisphere into the shadow is called the Summer Solstice (June 20-21) accompanied by the longest day and shortest night in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere. Twice a year, between the solstices, the Earth's axis is parallel to the perpendicular plane of the Earth's orbit - the Spring Equinox (March 20-21) and the Autumn Equinox (September 22-23) these days are accompanied by the same length of day and night in both hemispheres of the Earth.

The tilt of the earth's axis relative to the ecliptic plane

The Earth's orbit has an elliptical shape, its center (the Sun) is displaced by 3.4%, which means that there is a point as close as possible to the Sun - Perihelion (January 2-5) and as far as possible from it - Aphelion (July 1-5). Therefore, Winter in the Northern Hemisphere and Summer in the Southern Hemisphere are 7% warmer than Summer in the Northern Hemisphere and Winter in the Southern Hemisphere.
Passing through Perihelion, the Earth moves in orbit faster, because of this, the Sun at Zenith (Point overhead) is ahead of noon, and when passing through Aphelion, the Earth moves in orbit more slowly and the Sun at Zenith is late and does not correspond to noon.

The speed of the Earth around the Sun is uneven

Constellations

A constellation is a section of the celestial sphere with all objects projected onto it. It should be understood that the Constellation is not a region in outer space, but only a direction from the point of view of an earthly observer.
Astronomers divide the Celestial Sphere into 88 Constellations, the boundaries of which are drawn in the form of broken lines along the arcs of parallels and the meridian of the Celestial Sphere.

Constellations of the celestial sphere

The constellations located above the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth are called the Constellations of the northern sky, and those above the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth are called the Constellations of the southern sky.
The constellations located around the plane of the Earth's orbit are called the Zodiac constellations. When the Earth, the Sun and the Zodiac constellation are on the same line, it is generally accepted that the Sun is in this constellation.

Constellations of the zodiac

Galaxy

Far from cities and in the absence of the Moon, in the night sky you can see a luminous whitish band of linear clusters of stars, this is the plane of our galaxy (the Milky Way).

Milky way in the sky

The Galaxy (Milky Way) has a flat disk shape in the center of the Galaxy is a supermassive black hole, our solar system is located in one of the spiral arms (the Orion arm) between the Perseus arm and the Sagittarius arm and moves through a region of increased density of interstellar gas (Interstellar cloud).

The solar system inside the Milky way galaxy

The solar system revolves in a wave-like orbit (Box Orbit) around the center of the Galaxy at a speed of 254 km/s, making a complete revolution in about 250 million Earth years (Galactic year). At present, the solar system is tilted 60° relative to the plane of the galaxy.

The movement of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy

Moon

The Moon revolves around the Earth in an orbit whose plane almost coincides with the plane of the Earth's orbit, at a speed of 1.023 km/s, making a complete revolution relative to the Sun in 29.5 days (Synodic month). Also, the Moon rotates around its own axis in the same direction as the movement along its orbit, this rotation is synchronized with the rotation of the Moon around the Earth, as a result, it always faces the Earth with the same side.

The movement of the moon around the earth and the sun

Sun

The sun is a star in the solar system, consisting of gas and plasma, thermonuclear reactions take place in it. The sun shines with white light, and acquires a yellow tint on the surface of our planet due to the Earth's atmosphere.

Sun 332 940 earth weight
109 earth diameters
Gravity 27.85 g
Earth Weight 6²¹ tonne
Diameter 12 742 km
Gravity 1 g
Moon 0.0125 earth weight
0.273 earth diameters
Gravity 0.165 g


Note

Our model has an accuracy of 85%, in order to simplify the understanding of the principles of motion of celestial bodies and computational processes, we do not take into account some physical features of celestial mechanics, here is a list of them: the distance of the Moon to the Earth is 385 000 km (30 Earth diameters), the distance of the Earth to the Sun is 150 000 000 km (12 000 Earth diameters), movements of the Earth and Moon around a common barycenter (4 670 km from the center of the Earth), gradual increase in the Moon's orbit, Apocenter and Pericenter of the elliptical orbits of the Moon and Earth, fluctuations in the speed of movement along the orbits of the Earth and Moon, orbit inclination Moon at 5° with respect to the plane of the Ecliptic, rotation of the inclination of the axis of the Moon's orbit (Precession of the Moon's nodes), Nutation and Precession of the Earth's axis.

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